With regard to the Protestant Reformation, in what ways was Martin Luther a conservative thinker compared to others such as Calvin or the Anabaptists? Could the reform have begun a century prior? Why or Why not? When responding to your classmates, include new, additional research to support or disprove their position. Make sure to use proper APA format for all citations provided and include a reference list for the citations you use.
Overview: The Reformation and European Expansion
In Unit 7, we will continue our focus on Europe, picking up at the height of the Renaissance and exploring the political, social, and religious changes of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The expansion of the middle class in northern Europe helped propel Renaissance learning and artistic movements from Italy into the rest of Europe. Monarchies in England, France, the greater Netherlands, Spain, and Russia all become increasingly powerful, fueling not only political and social developments, but also developing the patronage of artists and architects who would adorn the capitals of Europe.
The Northern Renaissance also led to major religious changes, known as the Reformation. A German priest named Martin Luther begins the Reformation in 1517 by proposing fundamental changes to the often corrupt practices of the Catholic Church. The Lutheran developments in Germany inspired other reforms around Europe, including Anabaptism and Calvinism. The Reformation continued to expand throughout Europe, eventually making its way to England where conflict ensued between King Henry VIII and the Pope, resulting in the formation of an independent Church of England. The Catholic Church made attempts to reform and return to traditional practices, a movement known as the Counter Reformation.
The monarchies of the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries also promoted exploration and colonization, demonstrating the political and economic strength of an increasingly centralized Europe. As European nations expand their new empires into Africa and the Americas, the indigenous people of the conquered lands suffered, especially from the introduction of diseases. Exploration of Africa and especially the Americas opened trade opportunities for Europeans and created a new transAtlantic economy. This led to rivalries among European nations, as they fought for dominance over the new colonies and control of their immense natural resources and wealth. The image to the left is linked to an interactive map where you can see the approximate geographical location and learn more information about the civilizations discussed in this unit. If you are accessing this course from the Blackboard mobile application, you will need to visit the link or open the Interactive Map pdf listed below.
By the end of this unit, you will be able to:
Humanism and new technologies, such as the printing press, transformed life in the Northern Renaissance. Stronger monarchies and the growth of urbanism led to a declining role for local nobility and the Catholic Church throughout northern Europe.
Discussion of the chief features of the Northern Renaissance.
World History Online: Ep. 3 – Northern Renaissance
User: Danielle Demarest – Added: 7/23/13
Unit Topic 2- European Exploration
Before the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, most exploration occurred over land, but as men improved nautical science and technology, explorers set out across the vast oceans. Exploration starts with the Portuguese who push into Africa for gold and slaves. The Spanish, led by Christopher Columbus, attempted to find Asia by sailing across the Atlantic, but instead discovered the New World.
Explanation of how Spanish discovery of the New World and extensive silver deposits disrupted their economy.
The Spanish Empire, Silver, & Runaway Inflation: Crash Course World History #25
User:CrashCourse – Added: 7/12/12
Overview of the “Age of Exploration,” including European as well as Chinese contributions.
Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21
User:CrashCourse – Added: 6/14/12
Unit Topic 3- The Reformation
In the sixteenth century, people around Europe begin rebelling against the Church and its practices and beliefs. The Protestant Reformation was an attempt to adapt a simpler form of Christianity, and led to the creation of numerous separatist movements with their own theologies.
Discussion of the role of Martin Luther and the translation of Europe during the Protestant Reformation.
Luther and the Protestant Reformation: Crash Course World History #218
User:CrashCourse – Added: 11/29/14
Biography of Martin Luther and the foundations of the Protestant Reformation.