|Order ID: DHT6H23GDHY82HD
|Delivery: 3 HOURS & ABOVE
|Writer Classification: PHD-PROFICIENT
|Formatting Style: APA/HARVARD/MLA
|Plagiarism Grading: 0-0.3%
|Quality Standard: 99.999%
|Course Level: UNIVERSITY/COLLEGE
|Revision Request: ALLOWED
I need two replies to this discussion board on either agreeing or disagreeing. 150 words for each reply
Searches and Evidence
In the United States, approximately 20 million people are pulled over by law enforcement per year (Baumgartner et al., 2020). Traffic stops are normally low-information encounters that involve a short conversation between the officer and occupants of a vehicle, followed by a computer check of names and tags, and the decision of whether to proceed with a search of the vehicle. Although it is normally an unwanted encounter, the Supreme Court of the United States has determined law enforcement has the authority to detain someone temporarily in the case of Terry v. Ohio 392 US 1 (1968). (Baumgartner et al., 2020). “For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for rulers do not bear the sword for no reason” (Romans 13:4). Law enforcement officers conduct traffic stops to keep the public safe and to discover crimes that have been committed that may be unrelated to the reason for the stop.
The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution is the guideline that law enforcement officers use to determine when they can legally search a vehicle during a traffic stop. The Fourth Amendment prohibits illegal searches and requires that officers have probable cause in order to conduct a search of a vehicle (Hess et al., 2017). Officers should consider reasonable suspicion, probable cause, and the totality of the circumstances when conducting a traffic stop. An officer should consider that the reason for the stop could be heavily scrutinized in court proceedings if the traffic stop results in criminal charges. Officers should ensure there is a valid lawful reason to conduct the traffic stop. The factors involved in the decision to conduct traffic stops can vary by location and time of day.
“Probable cause must be established before a lawful search or arrest can be made” (Hess et al., 2017, 4-1b). There are many factors considered that would give an officer probable cause to search a vehicle. The presence of illegal items in plain view, furtive movements, the criminal record of the vehicle occupants, training and experience of the officer, destruction of evidence, evasive responses given to the officer, and suspicious behavior are all factors in determining whether probable cause exists (Hess et al., 2017). The more factors present, the more strength there is to the probable cause to search. Evidence deemed to be obtained illegally will be subject to the exclusionary rule and will not be admissible in court (Hess et al., 2017).
Baumgartner, F. R., Bell, K., Beyer, L., Boldrin, T., Doyle, L., Govan, L., Halpert, J., Hicks, J., Kyriakoudes, K., Lee, C., Leger, M., McAdon, S., Michalak, S., Murphy, C., Neal, E., O’Malley, O., Payne, E., Sapirstein, A., Stanley, S., & Thacker, K. (2020). Intersectional encounters, representative bureaucracy, and the routine traffic stop. Policy Studies Journal, 49(3), 860–886. https://doi.org/10.1111/psj.12382
Hess, K. M., Orthmann, C. H., & Cho, H. L. (2017). Criminal Investigation (Eleventh). Cengage.
New International Bible. (2011). The NIV Bible. https://www.thenivbible.com/Links to an external site. (Original work published 1978)
Traffic Stops: Probable Cause and Searches
|FOLLOWING OF INSTRUCTIONS
|NEATNESS AND OTHERS
An essay categorized as excellent demonstrated a profound mastery of the subject matter, coupled with an exceptional ability to organize thoughts coherently. This work showcased a sophisticated understanding of the topic, presenting nuanced arguments with clarity and precision. The structure was impeccable, with a well-defined introduction, body, and conclusion. Critical analysis was evident throughout, reflecting a deep engagement with relevant literature. The essay not only met but exceeded the expected standards, demonstrating a high level of scholarship and intellectual rigor.
An essay categorized as excellent in terms of following instructions demonstrates an exemplary adherence to guidelines. The writer meticulously follows each directive, showcasing a keen attention to detail and a comprehensive understanding of the assignment’s requirements. From formatting to specific content criteria, every instruction is not only met but exceeded, reflecting a dedication to precision. Such essays not only fulfill the given parameters but also exhibit a level of thoroughness that goes beyond expectations.
In the classification of “Neatness and Others,” top-tier works exhibit exceptional attention to detail and precision in presentation. These essays are immaculately organized, with a visually appealing layout and a meticulous approach to formatting. Neatness extends to language usage, where clarity and conciseness prevail. Citations and references are flawlessly integrated, showcasing a commitment to academic integrity. These essays go beyond the surface, incorporating additional elements like illustrative visuals or supplementary materials, enhancing the overall quality of presentation.
In the realm of an average essay, a moderate proficiency in the subject matter was observed. While the writer demonstrated a basic understanding of the topic, there were occasional lapses in organization and coherence. Arguments and analysis were presented, but there was room for improvement in terms of depth and clarity. The structure was adequate but lacked the refinement seen in higher-quality essays. Overall, the essay met the basic requirements but fell short of achieving a more polished and insightful presentation.
In the realm of an average essay regarding following instructions, there is a moderate adherence to guidelines. While the writer generally complies with the given instructions, there may be occasional deviations or oversights. The essay meets the basic requirements but lacks the meticulous attention to detail seen in higher-quality submissions. Despite a reasonable attempt to follow instructions, there is room for improvement in terms of ensuring a more precise alignment with the provided guidelines.
Essays falling into the average category regarding “Neatness and Others” demonstrate a moderate level of attention to detail. The organization is generally tidy, but there may be occasional lapses in formatting or presentation. Language usage is adequate, although there is room for improvement in terms of clarity and conciseness. Citations and references are appropriately included, but not with the finesse seen in higher-quality works. While meeting basic standards, these essays lack the polish and meticulousness associated with top-tier neatness.
An essay categorized as good quality displayed a solid understanding of the subject matter. The writer effectively communicated their ideas, presenting a coherent and well-organized piece of work. While not reaching the level of excellence, this essay exhibited a commendable effort in critical analysis and argumentation. The structure was generally sound, with a clear introduction, development of ideas in the body, and a reasonable conclusion. With minor enhancements in depth and refinement, this essay had the potential to elevate to a higher quality.
An essay categorized as good quality in following instructions displays a solid effort in adhering to guidelines. The writer demonstrates a satisfactory understanding of the given instructions, with overall compliance. While there may be some minor lapses, the essay generally meets the specified criteria. With a bit more attention to detail and precision in following instructions, these essays have the potential to elevate to a higher quality in terms of adherence to guidelines.
In the realm of “Good Quality” for Neatness and Others, essays display a solid effort in organization and presentation. The layout is generally tidy, with a clear structure and acceptable formatting. Language usage is effective, though some areas may benefit from increased clarity. Citations and references are included appropriately, though not with the precision seen in top-tier works. With minor refinements in organization and attention to detail, these essays have the potential to enhance their overall neatness and move towards a higher quality classification.