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*Instructions: In 2013, Sherman et al. conducted a study to examine how different forms of communication (text messaging, vs. video chat vs. telephone conversation) can influence feelings of closeness and bonding among friends. They instructed participants to come into the lab with their best friend, and randomly assigned them to engage in a 5-minute conversation in one of the three modalities (text message, video chat, or phone conversations). After the conversation, they measured feelings of closeness on a scale of 1-10. Let’s imagine that you decided to replicate this study with 30 participants (10 participants in each group). You can find the data in the questions below. *

Your job will be to figure out whether the three groups are different.

1.What is the appropriate test statistic to calculate to figure out if the three groups differ?

Group of answer choices

*an ANOVA (F *test)

Dependent sample *t*-test

*z *test

Independent sample *t*-test

- State the null hypothesis.

Group of answer choices

Ho: µ1 = µ2 = µ3

Ho: X1 ≠ X2 ≠ X3

- State the alternative hypothesis

Group of answer choices

H1: X1 ≠ X2 ≠ X3

H1: µ1 = µ2 = µ3

- What is the acceptable level of risk?

Group of answer choices

*P*>.05

*p*<.05

*P *= .5

*P*<.1

Use this table to answer the following questions:

Text Message | X^{2} |
Video Chat | X^{2} |
Phone Conversation | X^{2} |
|||

3 | 10 | 6 | ||||||

3 | 9 | 5 | ||||||

5 | 8 | 6 | ||||||

6 | 8 | 6 | ||||||

4 | 9 | 7 | ||||||

3 | 8 | 4 | ||||||

4 | 6 | 5 | ||||||

2 | 7 | 6 | ||||||

5 | 7 | 3 | ||||||

4 | 10 | 6 | ||||||

n |
N |
|||||||

ΣX |
ΣΣX |
|||||||

X |
(ΣΣX)^{2}/N |
|||||||

Σ(X^{2}) |
ΣΣ(X^{2}) |
|||||||

(ΣX)^{2}/n |
Σ(ΣX)^{2}/n |
|||||||

- This one is tough! There are lots of steps we need to take before we can calculate the final test statistic. Let’s break it down into steps
**. What is the Sum of Squares (SS) between?**

Group of answer choices

40.9

935.8

28.47

836.40

95.26

- Okay, now let’s figure out what’s the Sum of Squares (SS) within?

Group of answer choices

91.3

166

935.8

58.20

40.9

- Okay, what’s the
**Mean Squares Within (MSwithin)?**

Group of answer choices

2.16

4.98

3.381

1.51

- What’s the Mean Squares Between (MSBetween)?

Group of answer choices

2.16

47.63

14.23

8.63

- Now we’re ready to calculate the test statistic (yay!). Tell me the correct value of the test statistic, round to 2 decimals.

Group of answer choices

F = 31.44

F = 13.39

F = 9.40

F = 3.70

- What is the df between (also known as the df Numerator)?

Group of answer choices

*df *= 2

*df *= 3

*df *= 27

*df *= 30

- What is the df within (also known as the df Demominator)?

Group of answer choices

3

27

2

30

- What is the critical value?

Group of answer choices

5.49

3.36

2.87

4.56

- Based on the critical value and the obtained value, do you accept or reject the null hypothesis?

Group of answer choices

Fail to reject the null hypothesis

Reject the null hypothesis

- Based on your answer to the previous question, should we run a post hoc test (don’t worry, I won’t make you calculate them, I just want to know if we should do a post hoc test in this situation).

Group of answer choices

No

Yes

- Write up your results as you would see them in a research paper. Be sure that you include the means and standard deviations for each group in your write-up, as well as a sentence or two explaining the results! See the powerpoint for help with this. You do not need to calculate or include the post-hoc test here.

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